Nelson Mandela was a one of the famous personalities of 20th century. He played a key role against apartheid and become first black president in 1994. After becoming President Mandela had to ways toward country. First, he could have avenged the injustice done to the blacks and second, he could have added a new page not for only South Africa for also for the world by forget old memories.
He chooses second option and established peace and reconciliation Commission. The core objective of this Commission was to do voluntary confession and lead the people on the path of forgiveness.
Now South Africa is a vibrant democracy with a fastest growing economy. Nelson Mandela played a key role from a turbulent past to a new way of South Africa.
Political history of south Africa
South Africa is situated on the southern point of African continent. during the 17th and 18th century the Dutch and the britishers came to South Africa for trade and gradually set up their colonies. In 1899-1902, a war was seen between Dutch and britishers to control south Africa and finally, britishers won. South Africa become a sovereign colony of British Empire through passing state union act 1934. South Africa was known for racial tensions since long time. According to the racial profile 1911, south Africa consisted of 67% black Africans, 21% white Europeans, 9% coloured and 3% Asians. European minorities had taken possession on the politics and economy. to maintain their dominance, they had implemented the policy of apartheid.
Apartheid system of south Africa
The politics of South Africa during the time of 1948- 1994 was dominated on apartheid. With the system European whites despite of low population succeed to make dominance on South African societies. After 3 years of getting independence from Britain the land act passed in1913 to segregate black Africans. According to this act black could have live in separate places which was called black reserves or enclaves. In the oppose of the land act of 1913, south national was formed which become African national congress. The population registration act of 1950 divided South Africans into four distinct racial groups. Black Africans(bantoos), coloured(mixed), whites and Asians.
From parks to supermarkets and public transportations was racially divided. Best facilities were reserved for whites. If another racial used white reserved facility, they were punished. More than 80% of land was reserved for 20% of Europeans.
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In 1958, Hendrik Verwoerd become prime minister of south Africa and started policy of separate development. in this policy bantoos government act was passed in 1959 and established 10 bantoos homelands. It was a conspiracy to out blacks from central politics. between 1981 and 1994 around 35 lakhs of black Africans were deprived of their homes and send to Bantustan.
Opposition of apartheid and nelson Mandela
Mandela was born on July 18, 1818, as Rolihlahla Mandela in Mvezo village of South Africa. His father died when Mandela was 12 years old. His teacher named him nelson Mandela. He joined politics in 1943 and become a member of African National Congress and played a key role in co-found Youth League in 1944. In the leadership of Mandela ANC lunched mass-based programme. In 1952 Mandela was banned by government for his involvement in defiance campaign. In the oppose of 6 unjust laws passed by parliament, he started civil disobedience movement. For this opposition he went to jail with 29 campaigners.
In the opposition of 6 law, 69 people were killed by police attack. Against of this incident ANC announced for national strike.
In January 1952 Mandela went Morocco and Ethiopia for military training. when he come back in country government arrested him for conspiracy to overthrow to estate. Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment 1962. In 1976 the thousands of black children protested of African languages and were suited by police bullets for this government was internationally condemned. UNGA condemned the apartheid system of South Africa in 1973 and restricted any type of arms supply. UK and us also put economic sanctions in 1985.
Finally, domestic and international pressure pushed apartheid government to introduce reforms. In 1990 Mandela was released. Before getting released, Mandela served 26 years in prison.
After Mandela’s release new constitution was adopted in1994 in which voting rights were ensured for all citizens without racial differences. After adoption of new constitution, Mandela took oath as the first elected president of south Africa on May,10,1994.
Mandela and his friend Klerk were awarded with Nobel piece prize to end the apartheid system from south Africa.
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